Plumbing is a system of pipe and fixtures installation that carries water into and out of a house or other building. Most plumbing pipes are made of brass, cast iron, copper, plastic, or steel.
In residential plumbing system, plumbing consists of two separate sets of pipes lines: a water supply system and a drainage system. The water supply pipe line brings clean water and drainage pipe line carries away water and waste materials.
Water under pressure is secured either from elevated water tanks or local water distributor/district that are installed as street water pipe main lines. Where available street pressure is insufficient to serve a building because of its location a booster pumping system must be installed.
Drainage systems are of two basic types: sanitary or waste pipe lines and storm water pipe lines. Sanitary or waste pipe lines carry bodily and other wastes discharging from the plumbing fixtures and appliances to a sewage treatment facility outside the building. Sanitary drainage piping inside the building must be must have ventilation pipe lines to keep pressures in all sections of the drainage piping for easily discharging of waste and for sanitary purposes. Storm-water pipe lines carry rainwater from the roof by gravity to a collecting tank or an area of the ground where it can drain into the surrounding soil or to the street sewer.
A typical residential building contains toilet and bath rooms, kitchen and service area. A common toilet and bath room's fixtures includes lavatory, water closet or toilet bowl and shower. In some instances, bath tubs and bidet are installed as additional fixtures. The kitchen and service are being installed with sinks.
The water supply line is composed of main line and branches. Usually, 3/4" is the size for the mains and 1/2" for the branches. The drainage pipeline consists of either 4" or 3" main and always 2" for the branches and ventilations. Nowadays, pvc pipes are commonly used than steel pipes in residential plumbing.
In the installation of fixtures, the arrangement, lighting and ventilation shall be properly considered. The fixtures shall be arrange with the convenience to the respective distances. Adequate lighting either natural or artificial is a must form all angles. Good ventilation, natural or with the use of exhaust fan is necessary to dispel odors and proper air circulation within the area.
On the other hand, the water supply lines shall be laid out so as not to disrupt the water pressure to the other fixture when simultaneously opened and must be manageable to be repaired and maintained. Likewise for the drainage pipe lines shall maintain a 2% slope towards to the flow of water in horizontal direction with accessible clean outs for maintenance and repair.
1. In the installation of the plumbing system in a house, the water supply system and the drainage system both must function properly to be efficient and safe. Defects such as leaks in the connections can cause damage to the system and a large amount of is wasted. Leaks in the drainage system creates a health hazard by spilling waste materials and the bacteria they contain.
2. In the rural and suburban areas that do not have a public sewerage system, the sewage from a building flows into a septic tank nearby. Bacteria in the septic tank break down most of the solids in the sewage into gas and a harmless substance called humus. The gas escapes into the air, and the humus is removed periodically. The liquids run out of the tank into the surrounding soil.